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English Translations. The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine, often through a belt connected to the crankshaft , whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas.
Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive.
Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger. Manufacturers commonly use turbochargers in truck, car, train, aircraft, and construction-equipment engines.
They are most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. Forced induction dates back to the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in The  patent by Alfred Büchi , a Swiss engineer working at Gebrüder Sulzer now simply called Sulzer is often considered the birth of the turbocharger.
The design was licensed to several manufacturers and turbochargers began to be used in marine, railcar and large stationary applications.
Automobile and truck manufacturers began research into turbocharged engines during the s, however the problems of "turbo lag" and the bulky size of the turbocharger were not able to be solved at the time.
In contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent; the engine must withstand the net power output of the engine plus the power to drive the supercharger.
Another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency when compared with turbochargers especially Roots-type superchargers.
Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of a compressor's ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air.
Even under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated output temperature; however, more efficient compressors produce less excess heat.
Roots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, and therefore more potential power than the supercharged air.
By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses.
In contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is what is referred to as "lag" or "spool time". This is the time between the demand for an increase in power the throttle being opened and the turbocharger s providing increased intake pressure, and hence increased power.
Throttle lag occurs because turbochargers rely on the buildup of exhaust gas pressure to drive the turbine. In variable output systems such as automobile engines, exhaust gas pressure at idle, low engine speeds, or low throttle is usually insufficient to drive the turbine.
Only when the engine reaches sufficient speed does the turbine section start to spool up, or spin fast enough to produce intake pressure above atmospheric pressure.
A combination of an exhaust-driven turbocharger and an engine-driven supercharger can mitigate the weaknesses of both.
In the case of Electro-Motive Diesel 's two-stroke engines, the mechanically assisted turbocharger is not specifically a twincharger, as the engine uses the mechanical assistance to charge air only at lower engine speeds and startup.
Once above notch 5, the engine uses true turbocharging. This differs from a turbocharger that uses the compressor section of the turbo-compressor only during starting and, as a two-stroke engines cannot naturally aspirate, and, according to SAE definitions, a two-stroke engine with a mechanically assisted compressor during idle and low throttle is considered naturally aspirated.
In naturally aspirated piston engines , intake gases are drawn or "pushed" into the engine by atmospheric pressure filling the volumetric void caused by the downward stroke of the piston   which creates a low-pressure area , similar to drawing liquid using a syringe.
The amount of air actually inspired, compared with the theoretical amount if the engine could maintain atmospheric pressure, is called volumetric efficiency.
The turbocharger's compressor draws in ambient air and compresses it before it enters into the intake manifold at increased pressure. The power needed to spin the centrifugal compressor is derived from the kinetic energy of the engine's exhaust gases.
In automotive applications, 'boost' refers to the amount by which intake manifold pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure at sea level.
This is representative of the extra air pressure that is achieved over what would be achieved without the forced induction. The level of boost may be shown on a pressure gauge, usually in bar , psi or possibly kPa.
Modern turbochargers can use wastegates , blow-off valves and variable geometry, as discussed in later sections. In petrol engine turbocharger applications, boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system, including the turbocharger, inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range.
Over-boosting an engine frequently causes damage to the engine in a variety of ways including pre-ignition, overheating, and over-stressing the engine's internal hardware.
For example, to avoid engine knocking also known as detonation and the related physical damage to the engine, the intake manifold pressure must not get too high, thus the pressure at the intake manifold of the engine must be controlled by some means.
Opening the wastegate allows the excess energy destined for the turbine to bypass it and pass directly to the exhaust pipe, thus reducing boost pressure.
The wastegate can be either controlled manually frequently seen in aircraft or by an actuator in automotive applications, it is often controlled by the engine control unit.
A turbocharger may also be used to increase fuel efficiency without increasing power. As the hot turbine side is being driven by the exhaust energy, the cold intake turbine the other side of the turbo compresses fresh intake air and drives it into the engine's intake.
By using this otherwise wasted energy to increase the mass of air, it becomes easier to ensure that all fuel is burned before being vented at the start of the exhaust stage.
The increased temperature from the higher pressure gives a higher Carnot efficiency. A reduced density of intake air is caused by the loss of atmospheric density seen with elevated altitudes.
Thus, a natural use of the turbocharger is with aircraft engines. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes, the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off.
Since atmospheric pressure reduces as the aircraft climbs, power drops as a function of altitude in normally aspirated engines. Systems that use a turbocharger to maintain an engine's sea-level power output are called turbo-normalized systems.
Generally, a turbo-normalized system attempts to maintain a manifold pressure of Turbocharger lag turbo lag is the time required to change power output in response to a throttle change, noticed as a hesitation or slowed throttle response when accelerating as compared to a naturally aspirated engine.
This is due to the time needed for the exhaust system and turbocharger to generate the required boost which can also be referred to as spooling.
Inertia, friction, and compressor load are the primary contributors to turbocharger lag. Superchargers do not suffer this problem, because the turbine is eliminated due to the compressor being directly powered by the engine.
Turbocharger applications can be categorized into those that require changes in output power such as automotive and those that do not such as marine, aircraft, commercial automotive, industrial, engine-generators, and locomotives.
While important to varying degrees, turbocharger lag is most problematic in applications that require rapid changes in power output.
Engine designs reduce lag in a number of ways:. Sometimes turbo lag is mistaken for engine speeds that are below boost threshold. If engine speed is below a turbocharger's boost threshold rpm then the time needed for the vehicle to build speed and rpm could be considerable, maybe even tens of seconds for a heavy vehicle starting at low vehicle speed in a high gear.
This wait for vehicle speed increase is not turbo lag, it is improper gear selection for boost demand. Once the vehicle reaches sufficient speed to provide the required rpm to reach boost threshold, there will be a far shorter delay while the turbo itself builds rotational energy and transitions to positive boost, only this last part of the delay in achieving positive boost is the turbo lag.
The boost threshold of a turbocharger system is the lower bound of the region within which the compressor operates. Below a certain rate of flow, a compressor produces insignificant boost.
This limits boost at a particular RPM, regardless of exhaust gas pressure. Newer turbocharger and engine developments have steadily reduced boost thresholds.
Electrical boosting "E-boosting" is a new technology under development. It uses an electric motor to bring the turbocharger up to operating speed quicker than possible using available exhaust gases.
This makes compressor speed independent of turbine speed. Turbochargers start producing boost only when a certain amount of kinetic energy is present in the exhaust gasses.
Without adequate exhaust gas flow to spin the turbine blades, the turbocharger cannot produce the necessary force needed to compress the air going into the engine.
The boost threshold is determined by the engine displacement , engine rpm, throttle opening, and the size of the turbocharger. The operating speed rpm at which there is enough exhaust gas momentum to compress the air going into the engine is called the "boost threshold rpm".
Reducing the "boost threshold rpm" can improve throttle response. Many turbocharger installations use additional technologies , such as wastegates, intercooling and blow-off valves.
Energy provided for the turbine work is converted from the enthalpy and kinetic energy of the gas.
The turbine housings direct the gas flow through the turbine as it spins at up to , rpm. Often the same basic turbocharger assembly is available from the manufacturer with multiple housing choices for the turbine, and sometimes the compressor cover as well.
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Photos Add Image. Edit Cast Credited cast: Jonny Bogris Self Vin Diesel Dominic Toretto Luke Evans Shaw Tyrese Gibson Roman Pearce Dwayne Johnson Since the more-powerful Z06 model hasn't yet been revealed, the aftermarket is racing to add power to the C8.
We've seen turbocharged setups for the mid-engine 'Vette, but ProCharger has just revealed the first supercharger option we've seen for the C8.
The Kansas City supercharger company teased a "bolt-on supercharger system" for the C8 Corvette in a video released today. Details are limited, but according to the clip's description, the supercharger kit with intercooler pushes the C8 from hp to over on pump gas.
The company says the blower kit "is just around the corner.